Subject to change:

A Non-Profit's Approach to Scaling Up Green Infrastructure

As a nonprofit, Detroit Future City has a unique approach to stormwater project management through 3 programs. With 24+ sq. miles of vacant land in Detroit, DFC established a user-friendly tool, the "Field Guide to Working with Lots," and grant program. Community members install a design from the Guide to repurpose vacant land into beautiful, social spaces which attract pollinators and manage stormwater. DFC offers grantees these standardized designs with specialized technical assistance and project management. The Land+Water Works program annually hires 30 Detroit residents and nonprofits to educate and advocate responsible environmental stewardship to jumpstart Detroit's green culture shift. This program takes a community engagement approach to residential stormwater projects. DFC's GSI Consulting Services offer holistic design and PM services to mission-driven organizations to help lower their stormwater drainage charges and install green infrastructure. These affordable services help provide technical assistance to those non-profits, small businesses and churches who need it most. This unique social enterprise is helping to scale up stormwater projects in Detroit.

Approaches for Determining and Complying with TMDL Requirements for Roadway Stormwater Runoff

The presentation will provide an overview of a recently published National Academies of Sciences Research study. Information provides how state departments of transportation (DOTs) can develop and implement effective strategies for compliance with a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that includes a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) requirement. State transportation agencies own and operate streets and highways that extends for many miles, and cross rivers/streams, waterbodies, watersheds, and jurisdictions. Transportation authorities are required through the Clean Water Act to manage the stormwater runoff that discharges to our nation's waters through regulated municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s) along streets, roads, and highways. When a waterbody does not meet established water quality standards, State transportation agencies contributing to the water body impairment may be subject to the Section 303(d): Impaired Waters and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) mandates.

Biofiltration to Remove PCBs from Stormwater: Results from Pilot Testing and Real-Time Monitoring

At industrial sites, PCBs have typically been removed from stormwater using active treatment, such as chitosan-enhanced sand filtration. While effective, these approaches are expensive and energy intensive. Green infrastructure, such as lined biofiltration with engineered media, represents a cheaper and more sustainable alternative. To support design of a lined biofiltration system, we conducted a pilot study to assess the PCB removal effectiveness and hydraulics of four side-by-side test cells. We conducted the testing for 2 months, during which time runoff was continuously pumped during storm events from an existing stormwater vault to the test cells. Test cell flow rates and media permeability were continuously monitored using pressure transducers and we conducted five water quality sampling events. Results indicated that all four of the test cells removed PCBs to below detection limits during all sampling events. Hydraulic data indicated that a filtration rate of 12 inches/hour limits clogging risk. These data suggest that lined biofiltration is an effective alternative for removal of PCBs from stormwater runoff.

Closing the Feedback Loop in Green Streets: How O&M Lessons Learned Inform the Stormwater Manual

The City of Portland has, for nearly 20 years, been managing stormwater bioretention facilities, known as green streets, in right of way locations. What started as a program with just a few facilities has burgeoned into an inventory of nearly 2500 publicly owned assets. Over the years, challenges and successes have helped shape how we view, manage, design and site these stormwater infrastructure tools. In a dynamic presentation format, we will discuss the evolution of condition assessment and facility asset management in Portland, Oregon and how that evolution has helped inform facility design and policy. We will dive into the specifics of how our lessons learned are informing policy changes for the City of Portland 2020 Stormwater Management Manual. Topics include site characteristics like urban heat islands, tree canopy, human impacts, sediment loading, soil challenges, climate and drought, as well as aspect, sun/shade, and upstream challenges and successes. Budget and cost as well as plant and tree selection and preservation, irrigation, weed management, safety and visibility will also be covered.

Condition Assessment of Green Streets Bioretention in the Right of Way – It's a Numbers Game

The City of Portland has, for nearly 20 years, been managing stormwater bioretention facilities, known as green streets, in right of way locations. What started as a program with just a few facilities has burgeoned into nearly 2500 in publicly owned inventory. Operations and maintenance condition assessment of green streets has evolved over the years as the City of Portland’s Bureau of Environmental Services moves to manage green streets in an asset management framework while retaining necessary adaptive management processes. In 2019, a new condition assessment framework was implemented to inform operations and maintenance as well as overall functional condition. We will explore the details for the inspection monitoring framework, observation fields, severities of each category, and the weighted numeric indexes behind each category which ultimately determine an overall facility score. Aggregated values inform action items for maintenance operations. The overall facility score informs the public and other stakeholders about functional condition.

Continuous Monitoring for Roadside Hydraulic Conductivity

WSDOT conducted a multiyear study collecting hydrological data from roadside embankments. Data was collected continuously, and WSDOT made efforts to account for every drop of water entering and leaving the roadway vegetated embankment. This level of complete hydrological monitoring came with challenges, in the field and in data validation, not encountered by previous studies. Field data collection and site construction had a unique set of challenges for this study. Sites needed to be constructed in such a way as to ensure all water entering into the systems during a storm event was accounted for. The need for both reliable and continuous data collection paired with unpredictable forecasts posed challenges for both the data collection systems and field staff scheduling. WSDOT developed a data review process to insure the highest level of data continuity and accuracy possible. This data will be used to validate an empirically optimized method for estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) currently being developed by WSDOT’s Geotechnical Office. WSDOT intends to use the validated Ksat estimation method to improve future best management practice (BMP) designs.

Evaluating Vegetation and Growing Media for High-Performing Bioretention

Over the last decade, the use of bioretention to solve complex stormwater problems has increased throughout the world and in many large jurisdictions in the United States. As these facilities have been built and maintained it has become apparent that plant health is one of the major drivers of increasing life-cycle costs, and that fast-draining inorganic media and improper plant selection are the key culprits to poor plant establishment and health. This presentation will focus on the selection of vegetation and different growing media for high-performing bioretention facilities. It will include data from monitoring of plant health and media functionality, the impact of poor plant health on maintenance programs, and considerations on balancing the aesthetic goals of projects with the functional aspects of bioretention to detain, infiltrate, and release stormwater. The presentation will conclude with actionable steps for designers and municipal staff to consider when selecting components of a bioretention system, particularly plants and growing media, and how they can fit together to accomplish projects goals.

Every Home Counts: Meeting Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Goals Through Lot-Level Green Infrastructure

The District of Columbia (DC) and its partners are taking steps to reduce nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment pollution to levels that meet the water quality goals established in the 2014 Chesapeake Watershed Agreement. DC is unique among states within the Chesapeake Bay watershed in that it is ultra-urban; the majority of pollution comes from wastewater and urban stormwater runoff. Additionally, almost 30% of the land in the District is owned by federal agencies, leaving DC regulators with limited amounts of land to work with. These distinct challenges require innovative regulatory, incentive-based and stewardship programs to reduce pollution entering DC waterways and the Bay. RiverSmart Homes engages residents in lot-level green infrastructure installation. The program aims to reduce non-point source pollution caused by stormwater runoff on private property by subsidizing the cost and installation of rain barrels, rain gardens, permeable pavers, and more. Many municipal programs offer components similar to the RiverSmart Homes program, but fail to ensure proper installation, maintenance, monitoring, and ongoing education about the environmental impacts of stormwater pollution.

From Source Assessment to Water Quality Success: Aligning Stormwater & TMDL Priorities

The East Fork Lewis River (EFLR) watershed is home to both the fastest growing city in Washington State, and five priority populations of ESA listed salmon and steelhead. The watershed has seen a 47 percent increase in population since 2000, as forestlands have decreased, and more impervious surfaces have need added. Currently, the watershed is on Washington’s 303d list for warm water temperatures and bacteria problems. In 2018, a Bacteria and Temperature Source Assessment was published to support TMDL planning. Some of the highest bacteria levels measured in the watershed are discharging from a stormwater outfall in a non-permitted municipality. Priorities for long-term implementation include reducing impacts from stormwater, septic systems, and agriculture, and increasing riparian forest restoration in the watershed. This presentation highlights how partners are addressing TMDL priorities through stormwater program management; Ecology is implementing proactive nonpoint source investigation to find and control sources of bacteria; and how a new pollution identification and correction program is addressing failing septic systems and agricultural challenges in the watershed.

Hannibal's Road to Stormwater Utility Resilience through Program-Funding Nexus

What does it take to manage an unfunded stormwater management program that is transferred to a water/sewer utility? From our recent experience, it requires a paradigm shift in the way we Think-Plan-Do-Act. To address our stormwater challenges, we have defined a transformational initiative that involves the integration of revamping a stormwater program while seeking a funding mechanism. We chose a framework based on the principle of nexus among four features, namely Program, Cost, Fee, and Benefit. First, we discuss how we defined an inclusive program. Second, we discuss our financial plan for revenue adequacy. Third, we discuss our evaluation of a dedicated user fee basis and billing mechanism. Finally, we discuss the benefits such as revenue stability, equitable cost recovery, and ability to address stormwater issues. In addition, we present our ongoing efforts at engaging the City Council and rate payers, preparing for a ballot measure to secure voter approval. By focusing on the nexus among the four components, we have not only embarked on a path to financial resiliency but also launched a best practice process for long-term effective utility management.

Highlights and big ideas of Washington's municipal stormwater permits

With a strong regulatory history, and highly visible and important water resources to protect - Washington state’s municipal stormwater permits rely upon an encompassing, and in some cases novel, approach to stormwater management. Highlights of the newly reissued 2019 permits include: • Stormwater planning as a tool for water quality management and watershed health • Incorporating environmental justice into Stormwater Management Programs • Source control inspections for existing businesses on a regional basis • Stormwater retrofits… • Community based social marketing approach to education and outreach These new requirements build upon a solid regulatory foundation that: • requires Low Impact Development to be the preferred and commonly used approach in western Washington, • includes a permitee-funded regional stormwater monitoring program that tracks the status and trends of receiving waters, and studies the effectiveness of BMPs, and • provides up-to-date guidance through stormwater management manuals. A large part of the success is due to the regional collaboration, funding, as well as the state and local partnerships all working towards the goal of clean water.

Implementation of a Bioretention Facility and Rain Garden Assessment Protocol

Through an extensive literature search and two rounds of pilot studies, a team of academics, NPDES permittees, and on-the-ground experts developed effectiveness metrics for the evaluation of rain garden/bioretention functionality. Through this process the team developed an assessment protocol. This framework also provides insight into how installation methods and maintenance practices effect functional success of bioretention facilities and rain gardens. The effectiveness metrics include soil and probable infiltration characteristics, bypass/overflow attributes, plant viability, public acceptance, maintenance issues, and whether the installation is still collecting runoff. This presentation will provide an overview of the metrics, data methodology, protocol limitations, challenges and successes, as well as an overview and interpretation of the results from 41 assessed sites. It will also outline how jurisdictions and others can access and adapt the protocol for their use.

Innovative Monitoring to Support Management Objectives in a Complex Subwatershed

The Ada County Highway District (ACHD) manages stormwater infrastructure in the Boise, Idaho area. One of the largest and most complex subwatersheds in their permit area covers 900-acres of commercial and residential land use. If you can think of a stormwater management challenge, there's a good chance it is represented here, and additional monitoring has helped provide the resolution necessary to support management objectives in this highly dynamic drainage area. Water quality and quantity challenges include redevelopment in the downtown area, aging infrastructure and high nutrient loading in the residential areas, and dry weather flows from irrigation spillbacks, groundwater pumping, natural systems, and Boise’s geothermal network. ACHD monitors flows at several key junctures in the subwatershed to better understand these flows. Outcomes from pairing low-cost subcatchment monitoring with permit-required outfall monitoring include: • Successful alternative compliance measure implementation • Improved illicit discharge detection and pollutant source identification • Improved management of non-stormwater discharges • More representative stormwater quality sampling

Lessons Learned from a Four-Year Audit of the Hawaii DOT's Stormwater Programs

The State of Hawaii Department of Transportation (HDOT) was required by United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Consent Decree to conduct a comprehensive third-party evaluation of their stormwater programs. Over the course of four years, Kennedy Jenks planned and completed an evaluation of HDOT’s six municipal stormwater permits for three HDOT divisions (Airports, Harbors and Highways). The goal of the audit was to identify best practices that could be applied across HDOT’s three divisions to improve overall stormwater program effectiveness. In this presentation, the approach to evaluating HDOT’s stormwater programs will be described including tools and methods that were developed to assist in the audit process. Notable findings to date will be provided, highlighting challenges encountered and lessons learned from the perspective of both the audit team and the permit holders.

Leveraging Incentives: Lessons Learned from San Francisco's Green Infrastructure Grant Program

The San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) launched its first capital-funded grant program targeting green infrastructure retrofits on large, impervious parcels. The primary goal of the Green Infrastructure Grant Program (GIGP) is to encourage the implementation of performance-based green infrastructure by providing grants to large public and private property owners to manage their stormwater onsite and improve collection system performance during wet weather. Two of the main drivers for the creation of the GIGP were the cost of capital project delivery in San Francisco and the upcoming bifurcation of the SFPUC’s sewer service charge. Together, the new rate structure and GIGP incentivize the implementation of performance-based green infrastructure on large properties. The GIGP also creates a new green infrastructure delivery mechanism in San Francisco to expedite multi-beneficial capital projects in a lower-cost environment than right-of-way projects. This presentation will highlight the history and drivers of the program, the grant program structure, case studies of awarded projects, and the challenges and lessons learned over the first year of implementation.

Living Schoolyards as Stormwater Infrastructure: San Francisco's Stormwater Schoolyards Program

“A Stormwater schoolyard” is a schoolyard that prioritizes multipurpose infrastructure by delivering stormwater performance while enhancing children’s learning and play opportunities. This presentation will cover how SF Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) started its partnership with the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) and how it scaled up over the last 13 years. Since the start of the partnership in 2007, there have been over 50 stormwater schoolyard projects implemented across San Francisco. This presentation will cover how SFPUC developed a strong working relationship with SFUSD, challenges and successes in completing demonstration projects, the impact of stormwater management regulations, and how San Francisco is scaling up the partnership to deliver joint capital projects that provide regional stormwater benefits. The presentation will also cover lessons learned from the RL Stevenson Stormwater Schoolyard Project, which was the first project to fully test the integration of stormwater schoolyard designs, funding and teams. The team will end with progress towards their next goal, the first joint SFPUC-SFUSD capital project.

Meeting Municipal Surface Water Needs During Intense Redevelopment

The city of Shoreline, Washington is experiencing rapid redevelopment within upzoned residential areas that are served by aging and informal drainage systems. Many redevelopment projects occur on parcels that fall below the size threshold for triggering flow control requirements, resulting in additional impervious area and higher runoff rates during large rain events. Over time, the increased runoff rates may exceed the capacity of the municipal storm system or destabilize the receiving streams. To address these concerns, the City of Shoreline is taking action to: 1) adopt stormwater permitting policies and flow control requirements that are more stringent than the Washington State standards, 2) perform surface water modeling to evaluate system capacity and identify potential conveyance improvements, 3) explore opportunities for regional detention facilities, and 4) maximize the benefits of green stormwater infrastructure through integrated planning with other City departments. This presentation will describe the contributions of each of these elements and the outcomes of the initial planning studies.

MS4 Permit Compliance – Reporting Requirements

The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) issued the City of New York (NYC) its first Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) Permit on August 1, 2015. The permit was issued to 13 city agencies, and the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) serves as the program coordinator. NYC’s new multi-agency MS4 team collaborate to implement programs for compliance with the permit with technology at the cornerstone. DEP developed three distinct application systems to support recordkeeping and reporting; construction and post-construction permitting; and industrial and commercial inspections. Each system includes complex components that required years of planning, months of testing, and many updates. Developing these new systems is an achievement in strategically planning for programmatic technology innovation by setting up new customized systems to enhance our stormwater programs for the future. This paper on the City’s new MS4 applications systems showcases DEP’s method of effectively managing new stormwater programs; thereby, using technology to significantly contribute towards the achievement of reducing the risk of pollution in stormwater runoff.

NYC'S Approach to Private Property Green Infrastructure

New York City is on the precipice of a major expansion in the amount of stormwater managed on its private properties. This expansion is a result of new innovative incentives and new performance-based stormwater rules. These next generation tools are the culmination of lessons learned over the last ten years of implementing the New York City Green Infrastructure Program and the rapid depletion of opportunities to retrofit publicly owned property. Private property green infrastructure implementation remains the largest challenge facing the Program, but also provides the greatest opportunity for future largescale increases in onsite stormwater capture. Private property participation in the Program is critical to its success. Private property owners hold more than 50% of NYC’s land area. This presentation explores the next generation of NYC’s incentives and regulations to propel the private sector into participating in NYC’s water quality goals.

One Drop at a Time: Cambridge, MA's Stormwater Management Program

The City of Cambridge, MA has a long-standing stormwater management program to improve water quality in its receiving waters, including the Charles River and Alewife Brook, which drain into Boston Harbor. Their capital programs include efforts to remove common manholes, separate combined sewers, install stormwater wetlands, and construct stormwater storage tanks and other best management practices. The City is now implementing a robust stormwater education and outreach program to engage the public in stormwater-related issues and to comply with the requirements of the City’s MS4 Permit. In 2019, the City expanded its community outreach efforts to reach target audiences, including participation in multiple community events; provide education within schools; develop a stormwater logo, brand, and presence on social media; and develop innovative and interactive educational materials including an interactive stormwater model and multiple banners and displays. This presentation will provide an overview of the City’s stormwater management program with a focus on recent education and outreach efforts.

Organics Monitoring as Simple Method to Monitor, Track, and Assess Stormwater Runoff

A premium provider of plastics and chemicals with manufacturing globally needed a reliable method to detect, assess, and monitor stormwater. A site in northwest Florida produces chemicals like nylon and hosts guest companies’ operations with commitment to eliminating environmental releases. Industrial stormwater must be collected, tested, and, if necessary, treated before discharge. If upon testing, the contamination is higher than allowable limits, the stormwater must be sent to the industrial wastewater treatment facility or nearby municipal wastewater treatment. Of common stormwater contaminant classes, organic discharge levels are often the hardest to meet due to challenges and untimely methods of BOD and COD. This facility instead adopted Total Organic Carbon (TOC) as a rapid and comprehensive way to assess stormwater pollution with limits guiding organic loading. Given the size of the site, increased focus on sustainability, and a variable discharge/storm combination, they have grown their monitoring capabilities and advanced controls to not only evaluate the stormwater at different discharge points but also ensure the analytical performance with the use of check standards.

Our Green Duwamish Watershed Wide Stormwater Strategy

In 2014, King County and the City of Seattle launched an effort to develop strategies to improve environmental conditions in the Green Duwamish Watershed. This initiative is meant to increase coordination of work in the watershed to better manage habitat restoration, salmon recovery, flood control, stormwater management, public health, social equity, environmental cleanups, economic development, open space preservation and water quality. The outcome from this phase identified regional stormwater management as a key to improving the health of the watershed. In 2016, a collective of experts in the watershed developed a strategy for the regional management of stormwater. A yearlong dialogue culminated in defining a purpose, vision, goals, objectives and strategies of a watershed wide program. This effort has now entered a transitional phase, pivoting from ‘planning’ to ‘doing’. In Washington State, NPDES permits have been evolving to include more watershed based planning. This presentation will share King County’s experience in facilitating partnerships, co-designing approaches to collaborative stormwater management programs, and enabling coordination across the landscape.

Sharp Avenue Permeable Pavements

The Sharp Avenue Permeable Pavements project is part of the City of Spokane’s larger effort to remove PCBs from the Spokane River. The project limits are within a larger basin area in north Spokane that topographically drains south toward the Spokane River through three separate MS4 pipes. The project constructed multiple cross sections with both pervious concrete and porous asphalt to provide stormwater separation from the MS4 system. These cross sections include full width (curb to curb) permeable pavements, bike and parking lanes only and full intersections. These multiple cross sections allow the city to evaluate which cross sections constructed of which materials are viable in the traveled way. The City has constructed four sample stations with this project to monitor the treatment effectiveness of the different permeable materials and cross sections that were installed. In addition to the water quality component, the City is also monitoring the durability of the pavements as well as maintenance practices.

Stormwater Management Considerations for CWA Third-Party Citizen Suits

California’s Industrial General Stormwater Permit became effective July 1, 2015. After four years of working through the assessment and reporting programs with new Exceedance Response Actions (ERAs), business owners are still struggling to come to grips with the ever changing conditions and compliance risks associated with this permit. With the most recent amendment including the adoption of total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements, businesses face greater challenges with soon to come numeric effluent limits. Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB) inspections and Clean Water Act (CWA) third-party citizen lawsuits make storm water compliance in California even more challenging. Permitting requirements for constructed Best Management Practices (BMPs) devices need to consider compliance with both stormwater and groundwater infiltration regulations, engineering concerns, permitting with local building codes and health department agency requirements. This presentation will provide real world compliance concerns for facilities trying to implement stormwater capture and use systems as a result of Permit requirements and third-party citizen suit actions.

Surface Water Quality in Coastal Watersheds Following the Woolsey Fire in California

Surface water quality after wildfires in areas with anthropogenic influences have documented increases in various metal pollutants such as lead, mercury, copper, and zinc, as well as nutrients, total suspended solids (TSS), and sediment. However, there is very little research on bacteria, specifically Escherichia coli (E. coli), following wildfires. This research focuses on the 2018 Woolsey Fire in Malibu, California, to understand the seasonal trends of pollutant levels for E. coli, nitrogen, phosphorus, TSS, and copper, as well as analyze the impacts of other factors such as land use, discharge, precipitation, and septic tank locations on contaminant loading. Water quality data from monitoring stations three years prior to the Woolsey Fire and two years after the fire for three watersheds, of which two were coastal watersheds that were burned.

Taking a Hands-On Approach to Solving Stormwater Problems

Providing stormwater treatment at industrial sites with little available space is a challenge but some companies are used to solving big problems with ingenuity and elbow grease. Manke Lumber Company (Manke) has been milling lumber at their Tacoma, WA sawmill for almost 60 years and their family operations employ over 500 workers. When stormwater regulations required treatment of stormwater from their sawmill and pellet plant adjacent to the Hylebos Waterway on Commencement Bay, Manke initiated an aggressive facility upgrade project to enhance stormwater runoff quality from its five facility outfalls draining its lumber storage, sawmill, and log storage operations. With some engineering and permitting assistance, Manke employees constructed systems to segregate runoff from their sawdust storage facility and constructed two vegetated media biofiltration systems providing advanced treatment of runoff from over 30 acres of waterfront industrial land. Combined with paving, slope stabilization, and focused attention to upland operational best management practices, the facility has reduced discharge pollutant levels to well below permit required levels for most measured parameters.

The History of Bioretention in Washington State

The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) identified Bioretention as a Best Management Practice (BMP) for both runoff treatment and flow control. The engineered bioretention soil mix (BSM) consists of 60-percent sand and 40-percent compost (60/40 mix). This mix provides treatment for total suspended solids (TSS) and dissolved Copper and Zinc. After water passes through the BSM, it can infiltrate directly into the ground. Monitoring of bioretention facilities built with this 60/40 mix showed that there was export of phosphorus. This is an issue if there is collection piping below the BSM treatment layer draining the treated water back to the surface. Ecology informed local stormwater utility managers of this issue in 2013 and began funding, overseeing, and coordinating research into an alternative BSM that will provide treatment for TSS, dissolved Cu and Zn, and total phosphorus. This alternative BSM is particularly important when stormwater outfalls discharge to phosphorus-sensitive fresh waterbodies. This presentation reviews the history of bioretention in Washington State describes key outreach and research efforts completed to date.

The Waller Creek Tunnel Inlet Bypass at Waterloo Park

The $165 Million Waller Creek tunnel is the City of Austin’s largest flood control project to date. Located in Downtown Austin, the mile-long, concrete lined 26.5’ (average diameter), 70-foot deep inverted siphon began accepting flood waters in May 2015. The tunnel as designed and built diverts almost all (~90%) of the upland flows in to the tunnel. A new creek bypass that can convey smaller storm intensity flows around the existing dam being built as part of Waterloo Park improvements will be presented. The bypass will route flows from low intensity storm events that currently account for about 50 % of the flow volume that enters the tunnel in a given year away from the tunnel and to the creek, thereby creating a much-needed sediment transport system and flow diversity to the lower reaches of Waller Creek. In addition to significant improvement to the safety of OM personnel performing subsurface confined space work, added benefits include improved ecological function and reduced long term sediment removal costs. Key components of the project include an ecological weir structure with natural stream riffle beds and an intentionally placed aquatic organism habitat.

Two Views with One Goal: A Regulator and Permittee Perspective on Compliance

There are two sides to stormwater compliance, the perspective of the regulator and that of the permittee. Both sides share a common goal, preventing pollution and protecting water quality. However, there is often hesitancy of these entities to communicate with each other. Permittees fear exposing their facilities to regulatory actions, and regulators avoid prescribing corrective actions to avoid liability. There is so much that can be gained from discussions between professionals in both fields. Informal collaboration provides insight and understanding needed to achieve compliance. City Utilities' John Twitty Energy Center (JTEC) operates under a NPDES site-specific permit and is frequently inspected by a number of regulators, including City of Springfield stormwater inspectors. Environmental staff at City Utilities (CU) regularly seek City advice a number compliance-related issues, including on-site training, permitting, plan design and emergency response. Rather than the old stereotypical role of the regulator telling the permittee what to do, the City works with City Utilities to find new and innovative solutions that protect the environment.

Watershed based stormwater permit compliance - permittees, patience, politics and partners

The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System MS4 Permit in the County of Los Angeles was issued in 2012. The Permit provided for Permittees to collaboratively develop an Enhanced Watershed Management Program (EWMP). The EWMP approach allows for Permittees to comprehensively implement watershed based collaboration among Permittees and other partners on multi-benefit projects that retain all non-storm water runoff and runoff from the 85th percentile, 24-hour storm event. The permittees developed a EWMP and Coordinated Integrated Monitoring Program for the Santa Clara River to comply with requirements in the Permit. The state is now drafting the next permit that includes regional, watershed based permit for compliance. The City of Santa Clarita is also a member of the Regional Water Management Group of the Upper Santa Clara River Integrated Regional Water Management Plan. Measure W, a countywide tax approved by the voters in 2018, is distributed on a watershed basis through watershed steering committees. Watershed approaches have their benefits, but also require a different set of compliance skills. This presentation will focus on the lessons learned watershed based compliance.